After the testosterone (SAA) molecule has joined the androgen receptor and transmitted its information, it returns to the bloodstream. It can also come into contact with another receptor and do it again or it can be changed thanks to enzymes in other compounds such as estrogen, androstenediol etc. or be renamed into an inactive molecule that will be excreted in the urine. The testosterone molecule can also be converted into DHT (dihydrotestosterone). DHT has greater affinity (attraction) for receptor sites than for testosterone. DHT is distinguished by its strong androgenic characteristics and, to a lesser extent, by poor anabolic properties. In fact, DHT is five times more androgenic than testosterone. It is also associated with sebaceous glands, hair follicles and the prostate gland. This means increased acne and oily skin, alopecia and possible prostatic hypertrophy, if estrogen has access and 5-LO enzyme is present. The good news is that DHT improves muscle hardness and can not be polycysted to estrogen. Regardless of the type or derivative, all steroid molecules are processed by the liver and eventually excreted.
More specifically about testosterone
Testosterone (17-hydroxy-4-androstene-3-one, ATC: G 03 BA 03) – testosterone is an organic chemical compound, a basic male steroid hormone belonging to androgens. It is produced by interstitial Leydig cells in the nucleus under the influence of LH, and also in small amounts by the adrenal cortex, ovaries and placenta.We blood only a small part of testosterone occurs in free form and associated with albumin, the rest is associated with SHBG transport protein (sex hormone binding globuline). In target tissues, testosterone is transformed into a 2.5 times stronger form of 5–dihydrotestosterone. To exert its biological effects, testosterone binds to the receptors for the steroid hormones in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of effector cells. After assembly, conformational changes that allow the attachment of DNA chains to specific nucleotide sequences. As a result, there is a change in the transcriptional activity of specific genes.
Testosterone performs a number of important functions:
- shaping sex and sexual characteristics in fetal life (its deficiency, absence or defect of the fetus with the XY karyotype causes developmental defects such as: hypospadias, male pseudoarthrosis, in particular an insensitivity syndrome to androgens);
- affects spermatogenesis, secondary sexual characteristics (body build, voice, type of hair, facial hair, etc.);
- anabolic effect through stimulation of protein synthesis (also to a very small extent also increases muscle mass, etc.);
- may increase the level of libido (long-term use disappears), directs sex drive towards the female sex, accelerates the ending of long bone growth, stimulates prostate growth, increases its volume, strongly stimulates the development of prostate cancer (therefore, the use of testosterone as a drug should be under regular PSA control) increases blood cholesterol (thus theoretically increases the risk of atherosclerosis) – unlike estrogens, which reduce blood cholesterol, it can raise blood pressure, shapes the emotional sphere by shaping such features as definitely, audacity, certainty , courage, independence, but also a propensity for risk, depending on emotional development can cause explosions, aggression.
Testosterone derivatives – esters for oral use or slow-release injections from muscle tissue are used in the treatment.
Testosterone used in women demonstrates anabolic activity – however, it is very rarely practiced because of undesirable effects such as: masculinization, hirsutism. It is most often used in the case of advanced, hormonally active tumors. Testosterone given to a woman who is pregnant can cause female fetuses to develop symptoms of masculinization and the characteristics of the alleged female obesity. Pathologically excessive secretion of testosterone derivatives from the adrenal glands (due to a genetic defect) by the developing female fetus may cause the adrenal and gonorrhea syndrome with features of the pseudo-femoral defiance.
From 8 am to noon, man’s testosterone levels remain at the highest level. So he is bursting with energy, he is not lacking in self-confidence, he is in top form thanks to the perfect coordination of all the senses. He is enterprising, but also willing to argue and … very hungry for sex. Accumulated testosterone will increase the desire for intercourse. Between 13 and 17, testosterone levels are falling. This is the best time for team work, because the man is still in a good mood. It is also a good time for difficult conversations. When a man gets rid of excess energy, it is easier to get along with him, because he is more reliable, reveals good emotions. Testosterone and biologically active testosterone fall gradually after the age of 35. Heart attack risk factors are higher in men than in women before menopause age. Testosterone was a good candidate to explain the difference. A number of recent studies show opposite conclusions: low levels Testosterone increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A study from the University of California in San Diego found that low levels of testosterone increased the risk of premature death. Testosterone levels were measured in men aged 50-90 in the early 1980s and their mortality rate was studied. in 2004, the annual mortality rate in men with the lowest testosterone at the beginning of the study was 40% higher than in men with higher testosterone levels. Men with low testosterone were more likely to die from heart and lung diseases. There was no relationship between testosterone levels and cancer and cancer. This and several other studies justify the use of testosterone supplements in older men. The BALCO scandal and the Major League Baseball scandal have shed bad light on testosterone and have made doctors reluctant to prescribe them to patients. Testosterone kills brain cells. This finding may help explain why steroid abuse causes changes in behavior, such as increased aggression or suicidal tendencies.
Laboratory tests have shown that small amounts of the male sex hormone are beneficial for neurons, but its higher concentration causes self-destruction in a process reminiscent of pathological changes For example, in Alzheimer’s disease. Barbara Ehrlich, from Yale University, observes that it is not good when there is too little or too much testosterone, the most favorable situation is in the case of medium concentrations. Testosterone is crucial for the development, differentiation and growth of cells. Both women and men produce it, but for the latter it is typical that it is about 20 times higher. It is possible to “overdose” testosterone or steroids, which are converted into testosterone in the body. Previous research has shown that an excess of this hormone causes behavioral changes. We can show that when you have high levels of steroids, you also have high testosterone levels, which in turn can damage nerve cells. We also know that “losing” the brain, you lose its function – proves Ehrlich.The team of Americans carried out similar tests with estrogen. We were surprised, but it seems that estrogen has a protective effect on neurons. In the presence of estrogen, there are fewer cell deaths. In the pages of the Journal of Biological Chemistry Ehrlich and her team warn against taking steroids. This can help build muscle mass, but it has long-term negative effects on brain function. Apoptosis is important for the brain because it has to eliminate some cells. But if it happens too often, you lose too many neurons, and that means trouble. A similar process occurs in Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and other diseases. Our results suggest that the body’s reactions to increased testosterone levels can be compared with pathophysiological diseases.